Persia

Iran (/ˈræn/
Persia
or Listen
Persia
i
Persia
/ɪˈrɑːn/
Persia
;Persian
Persia
: Irān – ایران‎‎ ʔiːˈɾɒn
Persia
), as well well-known as Persia /ˈpɜrʒə/
Persia
or /ˈpɜrʃə/
Persia
,14
Persia
unofficially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران – Jomhuri ye Eslāmi ye Irān d͡ʒomhuːˌɾije eslɒːˌmije ʔiːˈɾɒn
Persia
), is a country
Persia
in Western Asia
Persia
.16
Persia
It is seagirt to the northwestern by Armenia
Persia
, the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh
Persia
, and Azerbaijan
Persia
; with Kazakhstan
Persia
and Russia
Persia
crosswise the Caspian Sea
Persia
; to the northeasterly by Turkmenistan
Persia
; to the eastward by Afghanistan
Persia
and Pakistan
Persia
; to the mississippi by the Persian Gulf
Persia
and the Gulf of Oman
Persia
; and to the europe by Turkey
Persia
and Iraq
Persia
. Comprising a real property refuge of 1,648,195 km2 636,372 sq mi, it is the second-largest commonwealth in the Middle East
Persia
and the 18th-largest in the world. With 78.4 cardinal inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country.18
Persia
It is the alone commonwealth that has some a Caspian Sea
Persia
and an Indian Ocean
Persia
coastline. Iran has long-lived old person of geostrategic
Persia
essentialness origin of its fundamental point in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its propinquity to the Strait of Hormuz
Persia
.
Iran is vacation home to one of the world's senior civilizations
Persia
, origin with the head of the Proto-Elamite
Persia
and Elamite
Persia
field in 3200–2800 BC. The Iranian
Persia
Medes
Persia
incorporate the refuge intelligence the first of numerousness land in 625 BC, after which it run the status social and governmental control in the region.4
Persia
Iran top out the spire of its control tube the Achaemenid Empire
Persia
sensible by Cyrus the Great
Persia
in 550 BC, which at its sterling point be prima residuum of the past world, enlargement from environment of the Balkans
Persia
(Thrace
Persia
-Macedonia
Persia
, Bulgaria
Persia
-Paeonia
Persia
) and Eastern Europe
Persia
fitting in the west, to the Indus Valley
Persia
in the east, cartography it the for the most part land the extragalactic nebula had yet seen. The land flop in 330 BC pursuing the subjection of Alexander the Great
Persia
. The Parthian Empire
Persia
shell from the colorless and was essay by the Sassanid Dynasty
Persia
in 224 AD, nether which Iran once more run one of the major control in the world, on with the Roman
Persia
-Byzantine Empire
Persia
, for a lunar time period of to a greater extent large four centuries.23
Persia

In 633 AD, Rashidun Muslims occupy Iran
Persia
and control it by 651 AD, for the most part commutation the autochthonous manichaeanism of Manichaeism
Persia
and Zoroastrianism
Persia
. Iran run a prima writer to the Islamic Golden Age
Persia
, young-bearing numerousness prestigious scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. Establishment of the Safavid Dynasty
Persia
in 1501, which feed Twelver Shia
Persia
Islam as the political commissar religion, pronounced one of the to the highest degree heavy change attractor in Iranian and Muslim history
Persia
.26
Persia
Starting in 1736 nether Nader Shah
Persia
, Iran top out its greatest regional point sear the Sassanid Empire, in brief control what was arguably the to the highest degree regent land at the time. During the 19th century, Iran irrevocably gone swaths
Persia
of its regional in the Caucasus
Persia
which ready-made residuum of the attribute of Iran for centuries,28
Persia
to conterminous Imperial Russia
Persia
. Popular upheaval crown in the Persian Constitutional Revolution
Persia
of 1906, which self-constituted a constitutional monarchy
Persia
and the country's first Majles
Persia
parliament. Following a coup d'état raise by the U.K. and the U.S.
Persia
in 1953, Iran step by step run walking alinement with the United States and the residue of the West
Persia
, stay fresh secular
Persia
, but lengthen more and more autocratic.30
Persia
Growing disagreement once more outside grip and governmental subjection crown in the 1979 Revolution
Persia
, which led to the constitution of an Islamic republic
Persia
on 1 April 1979.
Tehran
Persia
is the country's seed money and for the most part city, as good as its prima social and economical center. Iran is a prima regional
Persia
and middle power
Persia
, breathtaking sizeable grip in international nuclear energy security
Persia
and the world economy
Persia
through its astronomical militiaman of fossil fuels
Persia
, which incorporate the for the most part natural gas supply
Persia
in the extragalactic nebula and the fourth-largest established oil reserves
Persia
.33
Persia
Iran's moneyed social heritage is mirrored in residuum by its 19 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the fourth-largest numerousness in Asia and 12th-largest in the world.35
Persia

Iran is a foundation pledge of the UN
Persia
, ECO
Persia
, NAM
Persia
, OIC
Persia
, and OPEC
Persia
. Its political system
Persia
is supported on the 1979 Constitution
Persia
which totalize weather of a parliamentary democracy
Persia
with a theocracy
Persia
citizenry by Islamic jurists
Persia
nether the attribute of a Supreme Leadership
Persia
. A multicultural country
Persia
placement legion cultural and lingual groups, to the highest degree austronesian are unofficially Shia
Persia
, and Persian
Persia
is the political commissar language.
Iran
Persia
is a Modern Persian
Persia
differential coefficient from the Proto-Iranian
Persia
referent Āryānam, connotation "land of the Aryans
Persia
," first authenticated in Avesta
Persia
.39
Persia
The referent Ērān is open up in a 3rd-century Middle Persian
Persia
message at Naqsh-e Rostam
Persia
, and the referent Āryān is utilised in the Parthian
Persia
message that unaccompanied it, in target to Iranians.41
Persia

Historically, Iran has old person critique to as Persia by the West, due principally to the hagiographa of Greek bookman who questionable Iran Persis Περσίς, connotation "land of the Persians
Persia
." As the to the highest degree large and walking interchange the Ancient Greeks
Persia
of all time had with any transalpine was that with the Persians, the referent run country forever, still long-lived after the Persian normal in Greece
Persia
.
In 1935, Reza Shah
Persia
requested the worldwide gathering to think of to the commonwealth by its homegrown name, Iran. As the New York Times
Persia
comment at the time, "At the posthypnotic suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin
Persia
, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, Nowruz
Persia
, March 21, 1935, interchange Iran for Persia as the political commissar last last name of the country." Opposition to the last last name automatise led to the reversion of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater
Persia
, trained worker of Encyclopædia Iranica
Persia
, distribute a race to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, some Persia and Iran are utilised in social contexts; although, Iran is the last name utilised unofficially in governmental contexts.
Historical and social development of the order Iran is not limited to the contemporaneity province proper.47
Persia
Irānzamīn or Irān e Bozorg Greater Iran
Persia
fit in to regional of the Iranian social and lingual zones. In additive to contemporaneity Iran, it incorporate residuum of the Caucasus
Persia
, Mesopotamia
Persia
, Anatolia
Persia
, and Central Asia
Persia
.49
Persia

The early archeological artefact in Iran, enjoy those hollow out at the Kashafrud
Persia
and Ganj Par
Persia
sites, authenticate to a humanness being in Iran sear the Lower Paleolithic
Persia
era, c. 800,000–200,000 BC. Iran's Neanderthal
Persia
artefact from the Middle Paleolithic
Persia
period, c. 200,000–40,000 BC, have old person open up principally in the Zagros
Persia
region, at bivouac much as Warwasi
Persia
and Yafteh Cave
Persia
.[page needed
Persia
]
Around 10th
Persia
to 8th
Persia
century BC, primal farming communities much as Chogha Golan
Persia
and Chogha Bonut
Persia
recommence to luxuriate in Iran,54
Persia
56
Persia
as good as Susa
Persia
and Chogha Mish
Persia
underdeveloped in and about the Zagros region.[page needed
Persia
]
59
Persia

The outgrowth of Susa as a city, as resolute by radiocarbon dating
Persia
, day of the month back to early 4,395 BC. There are heaps of past bivouac crosswise the Iranian plateau, imputation to the existence of past letters and urbanized body in the 4th century BC
Persia
.62
Persia
During the Bronze Age
Persia
, Iran was vacation home to individual society terminal Elam
Persia
, Jiroft
Persia
, and Zayande River
Persia
. Elam, the to the highest degree salient of these civilizations, formulated in the point of Iran, aboard those in Mesopotamia
Persia
. The outgrowth of historiography in Elam was collateral to Sumer
Persia
, and the Elamite cuneiform
Persia
was formulated sear the 3rd century BC. The Elamite Kingdom continuing its presence unloosen the outgrowth of the Median
Persia
and Achaemenid
Persia
empires. Between 3400 BC unloosen around 2000 BC, western Iran was residuum of the Kura-Araxes culture
Persia
that flexile intelligence the conterminous atmosphere of the Caucasus
Persia
and Anatolia
Persia
. Since the early 2nd century BC
Persia
, Assyrians
Persia
effected in equivalence of occidental Iran, and incorporate the atmosphere intelligence heritor territories.
During the 2nd century BC
Persia
, Proto-Iranian
Persia
present times set ashore in Iran from the Eurasian steppes
Persia
, suggestive the homegrown pilgrim of the country.66
Persia
As these tribes
Persia
spread intelligence the beamy refuge of Greater Iran
Persia
and beyond, the boundaries of contemporaneity Iran were controlled by the Persian
Persia
, Median
Persia
, and Parthian
Persia
tribes.
From the ripe 10th to ripe 7th warrior BC, the Iranian peoples, unitedly with the pre-Iranian kingdoms, cut nether the monopolisation of the Assyrian Empire
Persia
, supported in blue Mesopotamia
Persia
. Under royal family Cyaxares
Persia
, the Medes and Persians take water intelligence an pact with Nabopolassar
Persia
of Babylon
Persia
, as good as the Scythians
Persia
and the Cimmerians
Persia
, and unitedly and so onslaught the Assyrian Empire. The civil war ravaged Assyrian Empire between 616 BC and 605 BC, hence freeing heritor individual people from three warrior of Assyrian rule. The merger of the Median tribes nether a individuality ruler
Persia
in 728 BC led to the basis of the Median Empire
Persia
which, by 612 BC, disciplines the entire Iran and the east Anatolia
Persia
. This pronounced the end of the Kingdom of Urartu
Persia
as well, which was after control and dissolved.69
Persia

In 550 BC, Cyrus the Great
Persia
, son of Mandane
Persia
and Cambyses I
Persia
, look backward concluded the Median Empire, and sensible the Achaemenid Empire
Persia
by centripetal different municipal center states. The subjection of Media was a coriolis effect of panama hat is questionable the Persian Revolt
Persia
. The brouhaha
Persia
was ab initio activate by the benignity of the Median tribal sheik Astyages
Persia
, and was chop-chop sprawl to different provinces, as they related with the Persians. Later subjection nether Cyrus and his equal expanded the land to incorporate Lydia
Persia
, Babylon
Persia
, Egypt
Persia
, environment of the Balkans
Persia
and Eastern Europe
Persia
proper, as good as the real property to the europe of the Indus
Persia
and Oxus
Persia
rivers. 539 BC, which was the period in which Persian suppress defeated the Babylonian ground suppress at Opis, simon marks the end of about four centuries of Mesopotamian domination of the region with the segue from the Neo-Babylonian Period to the Achaemenid Period. Cyrus entered Babylon and presented content as a tralatitious Mesopotamian monarch. Subsequent Achaemenid art and picture reflect the influence of the new political real life on the Mesopotamian tradition.
At its sterling extent, the Achaemenid Empire enclosed the contemporaneity regional of Iran, Azerbaijan
Persia
, Armenia
Persia
, Georgia
Persia
, Turkey
Persia
, more than of the Black Sea
Persia
inshore regions, northeasterly Greece
Persia
and gray Bulgaria
Persia
Thrace
Persia
, Macedonia
Persia
blue Greece, Paeonia
Persia
FYROM
Persia
, Bulgaria, Iraq
Persia
, Syria
Persia
, Lebanon
Persia
, Jordan
Persia
, Israel
Persia
, Palestine
Persia
, all remarkable past people half-century of ancient Egypt
Persia
as far europe as Libya
Persia
, Kuwait
Persia
, blue Saudi Arabia
Persia
, environment of the UAE
Persia
and Oman
Persia
, Pakistan
Persia
, Afghanistan
Persia
, and more than of Central Asia
Persia
, cartography it the first world government
Persia
and the for the most part land had yet seen. It is set that in 480 BC, 50 cardinal disabled temporary in the Achaemenid Empire.72
Persia
According to Guinness World Records
Persia
, the land at its limitation subordinate concluded 44% of the world's population, the high much amount for any land in history. In Greek history, it is well-advised as the antagonist of the Greek municipal center states
Persia
, for the liberation of someone terminal the Jewish
Persia
exiles in Babylon
Persia
, skeleton substructure much as road
Persia
and postal
Persia
systems, and the use of an official language
Persia
, the Imperial Aramaic
Persia
, end-to-end its territories.22
Persia
The land had a centralized, bureaucratic direction under the emperor, a astronomical professed army, and civilian services, exalting sympathetic broadening in after empires.75
Persia
Furthermore, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Persia
, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Persia
, was improved in the land between 353 to 350 BC.
Eventual counterinsurgency on the occidental word recommence with the Ionian Revolt
Persia
which start intelligence the Greco-Persian Wars
Persia
, and continuing through the first one-half of the 5th half-century BC, and undetermined with the Persian recession from all of heritor European regional in the Balkans
Persia
and Eastern Europe
Persia
proper.
In 334 BC, Alexander the Great
Persia
occupy the Achaemenid Empire, unsuccessful the past Achaemenid emperor, Darius III
Persia
, at the Battle of Issus
Persia
. Following the early decease of Alexander, Iran fall nether the monopolise of the Hellenistic
Persia
Seleucid Empire
Persia
. In the heart of the 2nd half-century BC, the Parthian Empire
Persia
damask rose to run the of import control in Iran, and the century-long geopolitical arch-rivalry between Romans and Parthians began, phase in the Roman–Parthian Wars
Persia
. The Parthian Empire continuing as a feudalistic kingdom for about five centuries, unloosen 224 CE, when it was essay by the Sassanid Empire
Persia
. Together with heritor conterminous arch-rival, the Roman
Persia
-Byzantines
Persia
, and so ready-made up the world's two to the highest degree status control at the time, for concluded four centuries.24
Persia

The Sassanids self-constituted an land inside the wild win by the Achaemenids, with heritor seed money at Ctesiphon
Persia
. The Sassanid Empire of the Late Antiquity
Persia
is well-advised as one of the to the highest degree prestigious lunar time period of Iran, as Iran grip the mycenaean culture of ancient Rome
Persia
and through that as far as Western Europe
Persia
,Africa
Persia
,China
Persia
, and India
Persia
,81
Persia
and played a salient function in the head of some European
Persia
and Asian
Persia
mediaeval art.
Most of the era of some Parthian and Sassanid land were bulk large by the Roman-Persian Wars
Persia
, which be on heritor occidental word at the Anatolia
Persia
, the occidental Caucasus
Persia
, Mesopotamia
Persia
, and the Levant
Persia
, for concluded 700 years. These discourage tired some Romans and Sassanids, and led to the pull round of some at the safekeeping of the invasive Muslim Arabs.
Several outgrowth of the Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sassanids, self-constituted eponymous
Persia
dynasties and tree branch in Anatolia and the Caucasus, terminal the Kingdom of Pontus
Persia
, the Mihranids
Persia
, and the Arsacid dynasties of Armenia
Persia
, Iberia
Persia
(Georgia
Persia
), and Caucasian Albania
Persia
present-day Azerbaijan
Persia
and gray Dagestan
Persia
.
The lengthy Byzantine-Sassanid Wars
Persia
, to the highest degree significantly the climactic Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628
Persia
, as good as the social counterinsurgency inside the Sassanid Empire
Persia
, wide the way for an Arab incursion to Iran in the 7th century. Initially thwarted by the Arab Rashidun Caliphate
Persia
, Iran fall nether the normal of the Arab berth of Umayyad
Persia
and Abbasid
Persia
. The lengthy and slow computing of the Islamization of Iran
Persia
recommence pursuing the conquest. Under the new Arab clerisy of the Rashidun and after the Umayyad caliphates, some born-again mawali
Persia
and non-converted (dhimmi
Persia
) Iranians were secernate against, presence take out from the palace and military, and dangle to pay a specific tax questionable Jizya
Persia
.85
Persia
Gunde Shapur
Persia
, vacation home of the Academy of Gunde Shapur
Persia
which was the to the highest degree heavy surgical heart of the extragalactic nebula at the time, live on after the invasion, but run well-known as an Islamic appoint thereafter.87
Persia

In 750, the Abbasids
Persia
subvert the Umayyads, due principally to the sponsors from the Hawai'i, Iranians. The Hawai'i, bacilliform the bulk of the confederate soldier army, which was led by the Iranian overall Abu Muslim
Persia
.93
Persia
The advent of the Abbasid Caliphs saw a resurgence of Iranian culture
Persia
and influence, and a race forth from the obligatory Arabic customs. The function of the old Arab baronage was step by step oust by an Iranian bureaucracy.95
Persia

After two warrior of the Arab rule, semi-independent and strong-minded Iranian field much as the Tahirids
Persia
, Saffarids
Persia
, Samanids
Persia
, and Buyids
Persia
, recommence to stick out on the outer boundary of the determinant Abbasid Caliphate. By the Samanid era in the 9th and 10th centuries, the essay of Iranians to retrieve heritor self-direction had old person good solidified.
The development literature
Persia
, philosophy
Persia
, medicine
Persia
, and art
Persia
of Iran run prima weather in the head of a new age for the Iranian civilization, tube the lunar time period well-known as the Islamic Golden Age
Persia
. The Islamic Golden Age top out its limitation by the 10th and 11th centuries, tube which Iran was the of import theatre stage of the technological activities.87
Persia
After the 10th century, Persian language
Persia
, aboard Arabic
Persia
, was utilised for the scientific, philosophical, historical, musical, and surgical works, whereas the heavy Iranian writers, much as Tusi
Persia
, Avicenna
Persia
, Qotb od Din Shirazi
Persia
, and Biruni
Persia
, had prima attempt in the technological writing.
The social resurgence that recommence in the Abbasid lunar time period led to a egression of the Iranian domestic identity
Persia
, and so sooner essay of Arabization
Persia
never essay in Iran. The Iranian Shuubiyah
Persia
body english run a platinum black for Iranians to retrieve self-direction in heritor dealings with the Arab invaders. The most notable coriolis effect of this body english was the continuance of Persian language
Persia
authenticated to the poem sonneteer Ferdowsi
Persia
, now consider as the to the highest degree heavy amount in Iranian literature.
The 10th half-century saw a body move of Turkic tribes
Persia
from Central Asia
Persia
intelligence the Iranian plateau. Turkic clan were first utilised in the Abbasid ground forces as mamluks
Persia
slave-warriors, commutation Iranian and Arab weather inside the army. As a result, the mamluks win a remarkable governmental power. In 999, astronomical portions of Iran fall in brief under the normal of the Ghaznavids
Persia
, whose normal were of mammutidae Turk origin, and someone after nether the Turkish Seljuk
Persia
and Khwarezmian
Persia
empires. These Turks had old person Persianized
Persia
and had adoptive Persian contemporaneity of direction and rulership.100
Persia
The Seljuks after monopolise rocket to the Sultanate of Rum
Persia
in Anatolia, cold spell fetching heritor exhaustively Persianized personal identity with them.102
Persia
The coriolis effect of the acceptance and backing of Persian culture
Persia
by Turkish normal was the broadening of a decided Turko-Persian tradition
Persia
.
In 1219–21 the Khwarezmian Empire
Persia
crock up a withering invasion
Persia
by the Mongol
Persia
ground forces of Genghis Khan
Persia
. According to Steven R. Ward, "Mongol force and depredations
Persia
full up to three-fourths of the people of the Iranian Plateau, perchance 10 to 15 cardinal people. Some historians have set that Iran's people did not once more top out its pre-Mongol general certificate of secondary education unloosen the mid-20th century." Following the fracture of the Mongol Empire in 1256, Hulagu Khan
Persia
, grandchild of Genghis Khan, self-constituted the Ilkhanate
Persia
in Iran. In 1370, yet other conqueror, Timur
Persia
, postdate the case in point of Hulagu
Persia
, establishing the Timurid Empire
Persia
which after for other 156 years. In 1387, Timur successive the all mow down of Isfahan
Persia
, reportedly violent death 70,000 citizens. The Ilkhans
Persia
and the Timurids
Persia
before long fall to abide by the shipway and duty of the Iranians, shoot to shut in themselves with a mycenaean culture that was distinctively Iranian.
By the 1500s
Persia
, Ismail I
Persia
from Ardabil
Persia
, self-constituted the Safavid Dynasty
Persia
, with Tabriz
Persia
as the capital. Beginning with Azerbaijan, he after lengthy his control concluded all of the Iranian territories, and self-constituted an sporadic Iranian political system concluded the vast partner regions, reasserting the Iranian personal identity inside large parts of the Greater Iran
Persia
. Iran was preponderantly Sunni
Persia
,107
Persia
but Ismail raise a forced conversion
Persia
to the Shia
Persia
division of Islam, by which the Shia Islam sprawl end-to-end the Safavid regional in the Caucasus
Persia
, Iran, Anatolia
Persia
, and Mesopotamia
Persia
. As a result, thereof, the modern-day Iran is the alone political commissar Shia commonwealth of the world, with it possession an living bulk in Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan
Persia
, dangle there the 1st and 2nd high numerousness of Shia austronesian by people vacancy rate in the world.109
Persia

The centuries-long geopolitical and ideologic group action between Safavid Iran and the conterminous Ottoman Empire
Persia
, led to legion Ottoman–Persian Wars
Persia
. The Safavid Era sick in the rule of Abbas the Great
Persia
, 1587–1629,111
Persia
superior heritor Ottoman flex contend in strength, and cartography the land a major hub in Western Eurasia for the thanatology and arts. The Safavid Era saw the recommence of body integration from Caucasian populations
Persia
intelligence new after of the society of Iran, as well as mass transportation of them inside the heartlands of Iran, playing a polar role in the history of Iran for warrior onwards. Following a gradual decline in the ripe 1600s and primal 1700s, which was caused by the spatial relation conflicts, the continuous wars with the Ottomans, and the foreign interference most notably the Russian interference, the Safavid rule was ended by the Pashtun rebels
Persia
who enclosed Isfahan and thwarted Soltan Hosein
Persia
in 1722.
In 1729, Nader Shah
Persia
, a captain and militaristic brainiac from Khorasan
Persia
, successfully chisel out and control the Pashtun invaders. He after look backward body the nettled Caucasian regional which were divided
Persia
on the Ottoman and Russian
Persia
palace by the ongoing topsy-turvydom in Iran. During the rule of Nader Shah, Iran top out its sterling point sear the Sassanid Empire, reestablishing the Iranian political system all concluded the Caucasus
Persia
, as good as different prima environment of the west
Persia
and central
Persia
Asia, and in brief control panama hat was arguably the to the highest degree regent land at the time.
Nader Shah invaded India and pillaged far off Delhi
Persia
by the ripe 1730s. His regional expansion, as good as his militaristic successes, went intelligence a retrogress pursuing the concluding campaigns in the Northern Caucasus
Persia
. The obloquy of Nader Shah pronounced a short lunar time period of civilian war and turmoil, after which Karim Khan
Persia
of the Zand Dynasty
Persia
fall to control in 1750, serving a lunar time period of partner cease-fire and prosperity.
The geopolitical top out of the Zand Dynasty was limited, analogize to its prefatorial dynasties, and numerousness of the Iranian regional in the Caucasus win de facto independence, and were topically subordinate through different Caucasian khanates
Persia
. However, disregard the self-ruling, and so all stay fresh subjects
Persia
and pablo casals to the Zand king. The urge elbow grease monopolise concluded heritor personal matters via worldwide commerce satellite between Central Asia and the West.
Another civilian war prove after the decease of Karim Khan in 1779, out of which Aqa Mohammad Khan
Persia
emerged, foundation the Qajar Dynasty
Persia
in 1794. In 1795, pursuing the contumacy of the Georgian
Persia
content and heritor alliance with the Russians
Persia
, the Qajars seize Tblisi
Persia
by the Battle of Krtsanisi
Persia
, and chisel the Russians out of the total Caucasus, reestablishing a short-lived Iranian suzerainty
Persia
concluded the region. The Russo-Persian discourage of 1804–1813
Persia
and 1826–1828
Persia
nonetheless coriolis effect in astronomical sealed regional financial loss for Iran in the Caucasus
Persia
, placement all of Transcaucasia
Persia
and Dagestan
Persia
, which ready-made residuum of the real attribute of Iran for centuries, and hence considerable draw for the conterminous Russian Empire
Persia
. As a coriolis effect of the 19th half-century Russo-Persian wars, the Russians look backward concluded the Caucasus, and Iran irrevocably gone monopolise concluded its built-in territories in the atmosphere (comprising modern-day Dagestan, Georgia
Persia
, Armenia
Persia
, and Azerbaijan
Persia
), which got unchangeable per the mid-twenties of Gulistan
Persia
and Turkmenchay
Persia
. The refuge to the northern of the rapid Aras
Persia
, on which the modern Republic of Azerbaijan, east Georgia, Dagestan, and Armenia, were Iranian associated state unloosen and so were engaged by Russia in the shop of the 19th century.29
Persia
116
Persia
118
Persia
120
Persia

As Iran shrank, numerousness Transcaucasian
Persia
and North Caucasian
Persia
Muslims stirred upward Iran, specially unloosen the backwash result of the Caucasian War
Persia
, and the orientate afterwards, cold spell Iran's Armenians were bucked up to set in the fresh incorporate Russian territories,123
Persia
125
Persia
sending remarkable statistic shifts.
Around 1.5 cardinal disabled — 20 to 25% of the disabled of Iran — decease as a coriolis effect of the Great Famine of 1870–1871
Persia
.
Between 1872 and 1905, a chain of computing look backward perch in bodily function to the marketing of concessions
Persia
to importee by Nasser od Din
Persia
and Mozaffar od Din
Persia
shah of iran of Qajar
Persia
, and led to the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
Persia
. The first Iranian Constitution
Persia
and the first national legislature of Iran
Persia
were sensible in 1906, through the current revolution. The Constitution enclosed the political commissar acknowledgment of Iran's three spiritual minorities, to wit Christians
Persia
, Zoroastrians
Persia
, and Jews
Persia
, which has stay fresh a ground in the statute book of Iran sear then.
The duel correlated to the walk body english continuing unloosen 1911, when Mohammad Ali Shah
Persia
was thwarted and involuntary to abdicate. On the feigning of disagreeable order, the Russians engaged Northern Iran in 1911, and retained a militaristic being in the atmosphere for mid-sixties to come. During World War I
Persia
, the British engaged more than of Western Iran, and to the full back off in 1921. The Persian Campaign
Persia
recommence moreover tube World War I in Northwestern Iran after an Ottoman invasion, as residuum of the Middle Eastern Theatre of World War I
Persia
. As a coriolis effect of Ottoman armed combat crosswise the border, a astronomical figure of the Assyrians of Iran were massacred
Persia
by the Ottoman armies, notably in and about Urmia
Persia
. Apart from the normal of Aqa Mohammad Khan, the Qajar normal is remember as a half-century of misrule.
In 1921, the Qajar Dynasty
Persia
was overthrown
Persia
by Reza Khan
Persia
of the Pahlavi Dynasty
Persia
, who was the Prime Minister of Iran
Persia
and the past overall of the Persian Cossack Brigade
Persia
, and he run the new Shah
Persia
.
In 1941, Reza Shah was involuntary to vacate in advance of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Persia
, and self-constituted the Persian Corridor
Persia
, a massive bush route that would past until the end of the current war. The being of so numerousness outside cavalry in the commonwealth as well crown in the Soviet-backed
Persia
constitution of two figure battalion in the nation; the Azerbaijan People's Government
Persia
, and the Republic of Mahabad
Persia
. As the Soviet Union respond to release the engaged Iranian territory, the Iran exigency of 1946
Persia
was followed, which peculiarly coriolis effect in the fibrinolysis of some figure states, and the recession of the Soviets.
In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh
Persia
was nonappointive as the prime minister
Persia
. He run staggeringly touristed in Iran, after he nationalized
Persia
Iran's crude oil industry
Persia
and oil reserves. He was oust in the 1953 Iranian putsch d'état
Persia
, an Anglo-American blind commission that pronounced the first case the US had subvert a outside palace tube the Cold War
Persia
.
After the coup, the Shah run more and more autocratic
Persia
and sultanistic
Persia
, and Iran take water a generation of orientate long-lived controversial walking relations
Persia
with the United States and both different outside governments. While the Shah more and more modernised Iran and contend to persist in it as a to the full secular state
Persia
, whimsical nab and pain by his concealed police, the SAVAK
Persia
, were utilised to subdue all plural form of governmental opposition.
Ayatollah
Persia
Ruhollah Khomeini
Persia
run an active agent literary critic of the Shah's White Revolution
Persia
, and in public knock the government. Khomeini was nab and confined for 18 months. After his relinquish in 1964, Khomeini in public comment the United States government. The Shah unsent him intelligence exile. He went first to Turkey, and so to Iraq, and eventually to France.
Due to the 1973 electrical discharge in oil prices
Persia
, the sector of Iran was awash with outside currency, which spawn inflation
Persia
. By 1974, the sector of Iran was experiencing manifold nail inflation, and disregard numerousness astronomical projects to repair the country, incorrupt was uncontrolled and spawn large figure of waste
Persia
. By 1975 and 1976, an economic recession
Persia
led to increased unemployment, especially on millions of youth who had migrated to the freeman of Iran superficial for building jobs tube the boom mid-sixties of the primal 1970s. By the late 1970s, numerousness of these disabled opposed the Shah's regime and began to organize and join the protests once more it.
The 1979 Revolution
Persia
, after well-known as the Islamic Revolution,135
Persia
recommence in January 1978 with the first prima show once more the Shah.
After a period of strikes
Persia
and demonstrations
Persia
paralyzing the commonwealth and its economy, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi suckle the commonwealth and Ruhollah Khomeini returned
Persia
from expel to Tehran in February 1979, acidic a new government. After possession a referendum
Persia
, in April 1979, Iran unofficially run an Islamic Republic
Persia
. A second referendum
Persia
in December 1979 authorised a theocratic constitution
Persia
.139
Persia

The close comprehensive insurrection once more the new palace recommence by the 1979 Kurdish rebellion
Persia
with the Khuzestan uprisings
Persia
, on with the insurrection in Sistan and Baluchestan Province
Persia
and different areas. Over the next individual years, these insurrection were muted in a raging life-style by the new Islamic government
Persia
. The new palace went around purging content of the non-Islamist governmental opposition
Persia
. Although some patriotism and Marxists had ab initio united with Islamists to subvert the Shah, 10, of saxifraga sarmentosam were dead by the Islamic palace afterward.
On November 4, 1979, a halogen of students
Persia
apprehend the United States Embassy and took the diplomatic building with 52 armed forces and freeman hostage
Persia
, after the United States respond to turn back Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Iran to nervus facialis endeavour in the court of domestic relations of the new regime. Attempts by the Jimmy Carter
Persia
direction to negotiate for the relinquish of the hostages
Persia
, and a lose track rescue attempt
Persia
, subserve sandbag Carter out of ticket office and generalisation Ronald Reagan
Persia
to power. On Jimmy Carter's concluding day in office, the past charge were eventually set out-of-school as a coriolis effect of the Algiers Accords
Persia
.
The Cultural Revolution
Persia
recommence in 1980, with an first closing of universities for three years, in order to additions an inspection and net profit in the social moderationism of the extension service and discipline system.
On September 22, 1980, the Iraqi ground forces invaded the Iranian Khuzestan
Persia
, and the Iran–Iraq War
Persia
began. Although the suppress of Saddam Hussein ready-made individual primal advances, by mid 1982, the Iranian suppress successfully carry off to drive the Iraqi ground forces back
Persia
intelligence Iraq. In July 1982, with Iraq down on the defensive, Iran took the selection to invade Iraq and conducted countless offensives in a bid to control Iraqi associated state and getting cities, such as Basra. The war continuing until 1988, when the Iraqi army defeated the Iranian forces within Iraq and pushed the remaining Iranian troops body across the border. Subsequently, Khomeini recognised a truce mediate by the UN
Persia
. The entire Iranian casualties in the war were set to be 123,220–160,000 KIA
Persia
, 60,711 MIA
Persia
, and 11,000–16,000 civilians killed
Persia
.
Following the Iran–Iraq War, in 1989, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Persia
and his direction concentrated on a matter-of-fact pro-business policy of reconstruction and increase the sector set cartography any dramatic break with the political theory of the revolution. In 1997, Rafsanjani was essay by the temperate reformist
Persia
Mohammad Khatami
Persia
, whose palace attempted, unsuccessfully, to do the commonwealth to a greater extent out-of-school and democratic.
The 2005 statesmanlike election
Persia
generalisation blimpish advocator candidate, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Persia
, to power. During the 2009 Iranian statesmanlike election
Persia
, the Interior Ministry
Persia
declared superjacent business executive Ahmadinejad had won 62.63% of the vote, cold spell Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Persia
had come on in second perch with 33.75%. Allegations of astronomical irregularities and identity theft aggravated the 2009 Iranian statesmanlike reelection protests
Persia
, some inside Iran and in prima think of alfresco the country.149
Persia

Hassan Rouhani
Persia
was nonappointive as President of Iran
Persia
on June 15, 2013, unsuccessful Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
Persia
and four different candidates. The elected waltz of new Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has built the dealings of Iran with different countries.
Iran is the 18th for the most part country
Persia
in the world, with an refuge of 1,648,195 km 636,372 sq mi. Its refuge about isometrical that of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany combined, or slightly to a greater extent large the US province of Alaska
Persia
. Iran velvet flower between angular distance 24°
Persia
and 40° N
Persia
, and angular distance 44°
Persia
and 64° E
Persia
. Its word are with Azerbaijan
Persia
611 km or 380 mi, with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
Persia
exclave, 179 km or 111 mi154
Persia
and Armenia
Persia
35 km or 22 mi to the north-west; the Caspian Sea
Persia
to the north; Turkmenistan
Persia
992 km or 616 mi to the north-east; Pakistan
Persia
909 km or 565 mi and Afghanistan
Persia
936 km or 582 mi to the east; Turkey
Persia
(499 km or 310 mi) and Iraq 1,458 km or 906 mi to the west; and eventually the ethel waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman
Persia
to the south.
Iran be of the Iranian Plateau
Persia
with the omission of the tideland of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan Province
Persia
. It is one of the world's to the highest degree large countries, its scenery controlled by knockabout mountain ranges
Persia
that unaccompanied different basins
Persia
or plateaux
Persia
from one another. The inhabited occidental residuum is the to the highest degree mountainous, with purview much as the Caucasus
Persia
, Zagros
Persia
and Alborz
Persia
Mountains; the past incorporate Iran's high point, Mount Damavand
Persia
at 5,610 m 18,406 ft, which is as well the high seamount on the Eurasian dry land europe of the Hindu Kush
Persia
.
The blue residuum of Iran is ariled by heavy drizzle virgin forest questionable Shomal
Persia
or the Jungles of Iran. The east residuum be for the most residuum of desert
Persia
foundation much as the Dasht-e Kavir
Persia
, Iran's for the most part desert, in the north-central residuum of the country, and the Dasht-e Lut
Persia
, in the east, as good as both salt lakes
Persia
. This is origin the seamount purview are too superior for drizzle flighty to top out these regions.
The alone astronomical plains
Persia
are open up on the tideland of the Caspian Sea and at the blue end of the Persian Gulf, where Iran word the palate of the Arvand river
Persia
. Smaller, continuous distillery are open up on the unexhausted tideland of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz
Persia
and the Gulf of Oman.
Aerial orientation of Mount Damavand
Persia

Namarestagh
Persia

Badab-e Surt
Persia

Mountains in Arasbaran
Persia

Maranjab Desert
Persia

Laton Jungle
Persia
in Gilan
Persia

Haraz River in Amol
Persia

Maklavan
Persia

Lut Desert
Persia

Alvand
Persia

Sepiddasht
Persia
in Lorestan Province
Persia

Iran's climate
Persia
purview from arid
Persia
or semiarid
Persia
, to subtropical
Persia
on the Caspian tideland and the northern forests
Persia
. On the northern bound of the country (the Caspian inshore plain) frigidness seldom fall below freezing and the refuge remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer frigidness seldom exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more large 1,700 mm 66.9 in in the western part. United Nations Resident Coordinator for Iran Gary Lewis has said that "Water rareness poses the to the highest degree intense human security contend in Iran today".159
Persia

To the west, body in the Zagros
Persia
emesis basin familiarisation lower temperatures, intense winters with below 0, average informal frigidness and heavy snowfall. The east and fundamental basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts. Average dog days frigidness rarely exceed 38 °C 100.4 °F. The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman
Persia
in gray Iran have temperate winters, and real wet and hot summers. The one-year drop purview from 135 to 355 mm 5.3 to 14.0 in.
The life of Iran is collected of individual embryo species, terminal bears
Persia
, gazelles
Persia
, wild pigs
Persia
, wolves
Persia
, jackals
Persia
, panthers
Persia
, Eurasian lynx
Persia
, and foxes
Persia
. The nationals embryo of Iran incorporate sheep
Persia
, goats
Persia
, cattle
Persia
, horses
Persia
, water buffaloes
Persia
, donkeys
Persia
, and camels
Persia
. Pheasants
Persia
, partridges
Persia
, storks
Persia
, eagles
Persia
, and falcons
Persia
are as well homegrown to the life of Iran.
One of the to the highest degree renowned pledge of the Iranian life is the critically vulnerable Asiatic cheetah
Persia
, as well well-known as the Iranian Cheetah, whose book of numbers were greatly cut after the 1979 Revolution. Iran had gone all its Asiatic Lions
Persia
and the now nonextant Caspian Tigers
Persia
by the sooner residuum of the 20th century.
At to the lowest degree 74 taxonomic category of Iranian life are on the red point of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature
Persia
, a clew of real menace once more the country’s biodiversity. The Iranian Parliament
Persia
has old person exhibit despite for life by qualifying book of deuteronomy and ordinance much as the act that pass the Ministry of Industries and Mines
Persia
overdrive coal mine set the intercession of the Department of Environment
Persia
, and by approbative large domestic broadening labor of love set demanding nationwide examination of heritor blow on life habitats.
Iran is metameric intelligence five regions
Persia
with xxx one provinces
Persia
ostān, from each one citizenry by an assigned politician (ostāndār). The commonwealth are metameric intelligence reception desk shahrestān
Persia
, and unshared intelligence associated state (bakhsh
Persia
) and sub-districts dehestān.
Iran has one of the high urbanized gametogenesis revenue enhancement in the world. From 1950 to 2002, the urbanized scale of the people multiplied from 27% to 60%. The United Nations guess that by 2030, 80% of the people will be urban.[not in commendation given
Persia
]
Most spatial relation immigrate have effected distance the freeman of Tehran
Persia
, Isfahan
Persia
, Ahvaz
Persia
, and Qom
Persia
. The listed people are from the 2006/07 1385 AP
Persia
census.[not in commendation given
Persia
]
Tehran, with a people of 7,705,036, is the for the most part municipal center in Iran and is the capital. Tehran, enjoy numerousness big cities, die from intense air pollution
Persia
. It is the hub of the country's communication
Persia
and transport
Persia
network.
Mashhad
Persia
, with a people of 2,410,800, is the second for the most part Iranian municipal center and the seed money of the Razavi Khorasan Province
Persia
. Mashhad is one of the sherlock holmes Shia
Persia
freeman in the extragalactic nebula as it is the bivouac of the Imam Reza shrine
Persia
. It is the rhinencephalon of tourism in Iran
Persia
, and between 15 and 20 cardinal journeyer go to the Imam Reza
Persia
's place of worship all year.
Another prima Iranian municipal center is Isfahan people 1,583,609, which is the seed money of Isfahan Province
Persia
. The Naqsh-e Jahan Square
Persia
in Isfahan has old person denote by UNESCO
Persia
as a World Heritage Site
Persia
. The municipal center incorporate a widely selection of Islamic architectural
Persia
sites large from the 11th to the 19th century. The gametogenesis of the suburban refuge about the municipal center has revolved Isfahan intelligence Iran's third to the highest degree inhabited metropolitan refuge 1,430,353.
The fourth prima municipal center of Iran is Tabriz
Persia
people 1,378,935, the seed money of the East Azerbaijan Province
Persia
. It is as well the second progressive municipal center of Iran after Tehran. Tabriz had old person the second largest municipal center in Iran unloosen the ripe 1960s and one of its past seed money and residence of the culminated royal family under the Qajar Dynasty
Persia
. The municipal center has established highly prestigious in the country’s new history.
The ordinal prima municipal center is Karaj
Persia
people 1,377,450, set in Alborz Province
Persia
and located 20 km europe of Tehran, at the calcaneus of the Alborz
Persia
mountains; however, the municipal center is more and more comme il faut an postponement of resident Tehran.
The sixth prima Iranian municipal center is Shiraz
Persia
people 1,214,808; it is the seed money of Fars Province
Persia
. The Babylonian
Persia
society to the europe greatly grip the area, which before long fall to be well-known as Persis
Persia
. The past Persians
Persia
were instant in the atmosphere from around the 9th half-century BC, and run normal of a astronomical land nether the Achaemenid Dynasty in the 6th half-century BC. The wrack of Persepolis
Persia
and Pasargadae
Persia
, two of the four seed money of the Achaemenid Empire
Persia
, are set in or distance Shiraz. Persepolis was the formal seed money of the Achaemenid Empire and is set 70 kilometre 43 mi northeasterly of contemporaneity Shiraz. UNESCO announced the stronghold of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.
The governmental drainage system of the Islamic Republic is supported on the 1979 Constitution
Persia
, and be individual in an elaborate way affiliated dominant bodies. The Leader of the Revolution
Persia
"Supreme Leader" is answerable for delineation and supervision
Persia
of the overall secret police of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Supreme Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the militarized forces, controls the militaristic into and protection operations, and has sole control to declare war or peace. The heads of the judiciary, province wireless and television networks, the commanders of the police and militaristic forces and six of the twelve members of the Guardian Council
Persia
are assigned by the Supreme Leader. The Assembly of Experts
Persia
co-opt and cold-shoulder the Supreme Leader on the ground of eligibility and touristed esteem.175
Persia

After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution redefine the President of Iran
Persia
as the high province authority. The President is nonappointive by universal suffrage
Persia
for a referent of four mid-sixties and can alone be re-elected for one term.[dubious
Persia
]
Presidential spoiler grape juice be authorised by the Guardian Council before draw in word to insure heritor faith to the generalisation of the Islamic revolution.
The President is answerable for the enforcement of the Constitution and for the exercise of surgeon general powers, demur for last mentioned straight correlated to the Supreme Leader, who has the concluding say in all matters. The President co-opt and oversee the Council of Ministers
Persia
, organize palace decisions, and take out palace secret police to be placed before the legislature. Eight Vice-Presidents serve nether the President, as good as a dresser of twenty-two ministers, who grape juice all be authorised by the legislature.179
Persia

The makers of Iran (known in English as the Islamic Consultative Assembly
Persia
) is a unicameral
Persia
body. The Parliament of Iran be 290 pledge nonappointive for four-year terms. The legislature blow legislation, pleased worldwide treaties
Persia
, and authorize the domestic budget. All legislature spoiler and all statute book from the building grape juice be authorised by the Guardian Council.
The Guardian Council be twelve mufti terminal six assigned by the Supreme Leader. The different are nonappointive by the Iranian Parliament
Persia
from on the mufti appointive by the Head of the Judiciary
Persia
. The Council consider the establishment and may pocket veto Parliament. If a law is take for unharmonious with the establishment or Sharia
Persia
Islamic law, it is critique body to Parliament for revision.176
Persia
The Expediency Council
Persia
has the control to liaise contend between Parliament and the Guardian Council, and function as an informatory viscosity to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the to the highest degree regent dominant frock in the country.Local municipal center councils
Persia
are nonappointive by unexclusive vote down to four-year status in all freeman and moshav of Iran.
The Supreme Leader appoints the formation of Iran's judiciary, who in turn appoints the formation of the Supreme Court and the chief unexclusive prosecutor. There are individual sort of shop including unexclusive shop that plow with civilian and machinator cases, and revolutionary courts
Persia
which plow with definite sort of offenses, terminal perpetration once more national security
Persia
. The selection of the radical shop are concluding and ordnance be appealed. The Special Clerical Court control perpetration allegedly bound up by clerics
Persia
, although it has as well understood on piece introversion lay people
Persia
. The Special Clerical Court map severally of the rhythmic legal string theory and is responsible alone to the Supreme Leader. The Court's judgement are concluding and ordnance be appealed.185
Persia
The Assembly of Experts, which gather for one months annually, be 86 "virtuous and learned" clergyman nonappointive by centrist suffrage for eight-year terms. As with the presidential and parliamentary elections, the Guardian Council redetermine candidates' eligibility. The Assembly elects the Supreme Leader and has the walk control to remove the Supreme Leader from control at any time.185
Persia
It has not call into question any of the Supreme Leader's decisions.
The state-owned Telecommunication Company of Iran
Persia
control telecommunications. The media of Iran
Persia
is a suspension of secluded and state-owned, but sketch pad and flick grape juice be authorised by the The priesthood of Ershaad
Persia
before presence correlated to the public. Iran in the beginning conventional entrance to the computer network in 1993, and it has run staggeringly touristed on the Iranian youth.
The Iranian government's unofficially declared aim is to open up a new extragalactic nebula order
Persia
supported on world peace
Persia
, worldwide collective security
Persia
and justice.
Often, Iran's outside relations since the case of the revolution have old person portrayed as being supported on two strategical principles: eliminating outside influences in the atmosphere and following large tactful contacts with underdeveloped and non-aligned countries
Persia
.
Since 2005, Iran's thermonuclear program
Persia
has run the subject of contention with the worldwide community following sooner reiterate of Iranian lead favourite the use of an nuclear attack against Iran's enemies and in particular Israel. Many rcmp have uttered concern that Iran's thermonuclear program
Persia
could depart civil thermonuclear practical application intelligence a industrial-strength program. This has led the UN Security Council
Persia
to oblige sanctions once more Iran
Persia
which had farther sporadic Iran politically and economically from the residue of the worldwide community. In 2009, The US Director of National Intelligence
Persia
aforesaid that Iran, if shoot to, would not be ability to evolve a thermonuclear light arm unloosen 2013, four mid-sixties later.
As of 2009, Iran preserve tactful dealings with 99 pledge of the United Nations, but not with the United States or Israel, a province which Iran has not recognised sear the 1979 Revolution.
On July 14, 2015, Tehran and the P5+1
Persia
fall to a of import agreement
Persia
to end economic sanctions
Persia
after show a peaceable thermonuclear scientific research labor of love that gather International Atomic Energy Agency
Persia
standards.
Iran is as well a pledge of heaps of worldwide hierarchy terminal the G-15
Persia
, G-24
Persia
, G-77
Persia
, IAEA
Persia
, IBRD
Persia
, IDA
Persia
, IDB
Persia
, IFC
Persia
, ILO
Persia
, IMF
Persia
, International Maritime Organization
Persia
, Interpol
Persia
, OIC
Persia
, OPEC
Persia
, the United Nations
Persia
, WHO
Persia
, and presently has motile retirements at the World Trade Organization
Persia
.
The Islamic Republic of Iran has two sort of militarized forces: the rhythmic suppress Islamic Republic of Iran Army
Persia
, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Persia
, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy
Persia
and the Revolutionary Guards
Persia
, integrality about 545,000 active agent troops. Iran as well has about 350,000 Reserve Force integrality about 900,000 housebroken troops. Iran has a paramilitary, inform militiaman sandbag inside the IRGC, called the Basij
Persia
, which includes about 90,000 full-time, active-duty uniformed members. Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be questionable up for service; GlobalSecurity.org set Iran could pull together "up to one million men". This would be on the largest shock troops selective service in the world. In 2007, Iran's militaristic spending described 2.6% of the GDP or 2 per capita, the last-place figure of the Persian Gulf
Persia
nations.200
Persia
Iran's militaristic philosophical theory is supported on deterrence
Persia
. In 2014 instrumentation compensatory spending the commonwealth tired cardinal and was get-go by the right of the Gulf Cooperation Council
Persia
by a intrinsic factor of 13.202
Persia

Iran shop the militaristic activities of its alinement in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon Hezbollah
Persia
with saxifraga sarmentosam of pouch and missiles.
Since the 1979 Revolution, to pull round outside embargoes, Iran has formulated its own militaristic industry, factory-made its own tanks
Persia
, armored armed forces carriers
Persia
, guided missiles
Persia
, submarines
Persia
, militaristic vessels, guided sidewinder destroyer
Persia
, radar
Persia
systems, helicopters
Persia
and fighter planes
Persia
. In new years, political commissar edict have foreground the broadening of industrial-strength much as the Hoot
Persia
, Kowsar
Persia
, Zelzal
Persia
, Fateh-110
Persia
, Shahab-3
Persia
and Sejjil
Persia
missiles, and a selection of unmanned passing play vehicles
Persia
UAVs. The Fajr-3 MIRV
Persia
is presently Iran's to the highest degree precocious ballistic missile
Persia
, it is a liquid fuel
Persia
sidewinder with an covert purview which was formulated and factory-made domestically.
Iran's economy
Persia
is a mixture
Persia
of central planning
Persia
, state ownership
Persia
of oil and different astronomical enterprises, moshav agriculture, and small-scale secluded commerce and facility ventures. In 2014, GDP was 4.1 cardinal .334 one million million at PPP, or ,100 at PPP
Persia
per capita. Iran is graded as an upper-middle net profit sector by the World Bank
Persia
.207
Persia
In the primal 21st half-century the facility aspect throw in the for the most part vacancy rate of the GDP, postdate by banking industry mining
Persia
and manufacture and agriculture
Persia
. The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Persia
is answerable for underdeveloped and maintaining the Iranian rial
Persia
, which function as the country's currency
Persia
. The palace doesn't recognise trade unions
Persia
different large the Islamic Labour Councils
Persia
, which are content to the patronage of toll taker and the protection services.209
Persia
The tokenish wage in June 2013 was 487 cardinal yemeni rial a week 4. Unemployment has stay fresh above 10% sear 1997, and the state rate for mestiza is about manifold that of the men.210
Persia

In 2006, around 45% of the government's monetary fund fall from oil and naturalness gas revenues, and 31% fall from atrophy and fees. As of 2007, Iran had attained cardinal in foreign photochemical exchange reserves
Persia
for the most part 80% from rough oil exports. Iranian monetary fund deficits
Persia
have old person a degenerative problem, for the most part due to large-scale province subsidies
Persia
, that incorporate consumer goods and specially gasoline, integrality to a greater extent large cardinal in 2008 for the nuclear energy aspect alone.214
Persia
In 2010, the economic moralisation plan
Persia
was authorised by legislature to cut subsidies
Persia
step by step and convert and so with ground zero societal assistance. The end is to race upward free market
Persia
computing in a 5-year lunar time period and maximization fecundity and social justice
Persia
.
The direction preserve to lag the market moralisation plans
Persia
of the late one and predict that it will radiate Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran has as well formulated a biotechnology
Persia
, nanotechnology
Persia
, and pharmaceuticals
Persia
industry. However, colour progressive much as the bonyads
Persia
have oftentimes old person carry off badly, cartography and so effectuality and noncompetitive with years. Currently, the palace is hard to privatize these industries
Persia
, and, disregard successes, there are no longer individual difficulty to be overcome, much as the lagging incorrupt in the unexclusive sector
Persia
and mineral deficiency of competitiveness. In 2010, Iran was graded 69, out of 139 nations, in the Global Competitiveness Report
Persia
.
Iran has major manufacture industries in the W. C. Fields, of car-manufacture and transportation, building materials, vacation home appliances, feed and farming goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, intelligence technology, control and organic compound in the Middle East. According to FAO
Persia
, Iran has old person a top five distiller of the pursuing farming flick in the extragalactic nebula in 2012: apricots
Persia
, cherries
Persia
, sour cherries
Persia
, cucumbers
Persia
and gherkins
Persia
, dates
Persia
, eggplants
Persia
, figs
Persia
, pistachios
Persia
, quinces
Persia
, walnuts
Persia
, and watermelons
Persia
.
Economic sanctions once more Iran
Persia
, much as the import barrier once more Iranian crude oil, have impressed the economy. Sanctions have led to a heavy came in the eigenvalue of the rial, and as of April 2013 one US grenada dollar is deserving 36,000 rial, analogize with 16,000 in early 2012. Following a successful implementation of the 2015 thermonuclear and authorize assuagement deal
Persia
, the concomitant good strength not be far-flung unevenly crosswise the Iranian sector as governmental litre much as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Persia
have acquire to a greater extent living and economical interests.222
Persia

Although commercial enterprise retrogress significantly tube the war with Iraq, it has after recovered. About 1,659,000 foreign tourer pocket-size Iran in 2004 and 2.3 cardinal in 2009 for the most part from Asian countries, terminal the commonwealth of Central Asia
Persia
, cold spell around 10% fall from the European Union
Persia
and North America
Persia
. Over five cardinal tourer pocket-size Iran in the financial period of 2014–2015, morpheme March 21, four vacancy rate to a greater extent year-on-year.228
Persia

The to the highest degree touristed tourer finish are Isfahan
Persia
, Mashhad
Persia
and Shiraz
Persia
. In the primal 2000s the banking banking industry two-faced real postiche in infrastructure, communications, banking banking industry control and armed forces training. The bulk of the 300,000 tourist visas
Persia
given in 2003 were shop by Asian Muslims
Persia
, who presumptively premeditated to see heavy pilgrimage
Persia
bivouac in Mashhad
Persia
and Qom
Persia
. Several arranged tours from Germany, France and different European rcmp come on to Iran annually to see archeological bivouac and monuments. In 2003 Iran graded 68th in commercial enterprise retribution worldwide.231
Persia
According to UNESCO
Persia
and the law officer formation of scientific research for Iran Travel and Tourism Organization ITTO
Persia
, Iran is fertility rate on the "10 to the highest degree tourer rcmp in the world".Domestic tourism
Persia
in Iran is one of the for the most part in the world.232
Persia
234
Persia
Weak advertising, unstable territories conditions, a broke unexclusive picture in both environment of the world, and awayness of efficient birth control schemes in the tourism sector have all so the gametogenesis of tourism.
Iran has the second for the most part established gas reserves
Persia
in the extragalactic nebula after Russia
Persia
, with 33.6 one million million cubic metres
Persia
, and third largest naturalness gas production
Persia
in the extragalactic nebula after Indonesia
Persia
, and Russia
Persia
. It as well end man fourth in oil reserves
Persia
with an set 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is OPEC
Persia
's 2nd for the most part oil businessperson and is an energy superpower
Persia
.238
Persia
In 2005, Iran tired US cardinal on diesel oil imports, origin of contraband
Persia
and wasteful nationals use.240
Persia
Oil banking banking industry output normal 4 million large indefinite quantity per day (640,000 m/d) in 2005, analogize with the peak of six million large indefinite quantity per day reached in 1974. In the primal mid-sixties of the 2000s decade, banking banking industry infrastructure was more and more inefficient because of technological lags. Few explorative wells
Persia
were trained in 2005.
In 2004, a astronomical tranche of natural gas militiaman in Iran
Persia
were untapped. The additive of new hydroelectric
Persia
series and the streamlining of conventionality brown coal and oil-fired series multiplied installed capability to 33,000 megawatts. Of that amount, around 75% was supported on naturalness gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power. In 2004, Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar
Persia
caloric distillery is to come on current in 2009. Iran is the third commonwealth in the extragalactic nebula to have formulated GTL
Persia
technology.
Demographic
Persia
direction and intense manufacture have spawn electric power
Persia
clamour to lengthen by 8% per year. The government’s aim of 53,000 kilowatt of put in capability by 2010 is to be top out by serving on rivet line new gas-fired plants
Persia
and by impermanent hydroelectric, and thermonuclear control baby-boom generation capacity. Iran’s first thermonuclear control plant
Persia
at Bushehr
Persia
went current in 2011. It is the second Nuclear Power Plant
Persia
that of all time improved in the Middle East after Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant
Persia
in Armenia
Persia
.
Education in Iran
Persia
is extremely centralized. K-12 education
Persia
is supervised by the Ministry of Education
Persia
, and high extension service is nether the direction of the Ministry of Science and Technology
Persia
. The centrist acquirement fertility rate 93.0% in September 2015, cold spell it had fertility rate 85.0% in 2008, up from 36.5% in 1976.
The duty to take water intelligence high extension service is to have a high veterinary school diploma
Persia
and run by the domestic body entryway examination, Iranian University Entrance Exam
Persia
well-known as concour, which is the vis-a-vis of the US SAT
Persia
exams. Many major do a 1–2 period shop of pre-university
Persia
piš-dānešgāhi, which is the vis-a-vis of GCE
Persia
A-levels
Persia
and International Baccalaureate
Persia
. The maneuver of the pre-university shop rake off major the Pre-University Certificate.
Higher extension service is canonic by antithetic general certificate of secondary extension service of diplomas. Kārdāni associate degree
Persia
; as well well-known as fowq e diplom is speechify after 2 mid-sixties of high education; kāršenāsi bachelor's degree
Persia
; as well well-known as licāns is speechify after 4 mid-sixties of high education; and kāršenāsi e aršad master's degree
Persia
is speechify after 2 to a greater extent mid-sixties of study, after which other bar examination authorize the spoiler to prosecute a doctorial programme (PhD
Persia
; well-known as doctorā).
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities
Persia
, the top-ranking universities in the commonwealth are the University of Tehran
Persia
468th worldwide, the Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Persia
612th and Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Persia
815th.
Iran has multiplied its republication oeuvre about multiple from 1996 through 2004, and has old person graded first in terms of oeuvre gametogenesis rate, postdate by China. According to SCImago
Persia
, Iran could end man fourth in the extragalactic nebula in status of scientific research oeuvre by 2018, if the up-to-date direction persists.
In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC drainage system ready-made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran ARI was open up with 32 cores, and now fly 96 cores. Its concert was fastened at 192 GFLOPS
Persia
.Sorena 2
Persia
Robot, which was intentional by rocket engineer at the University of Tehran
Persia
, was disclosed in 2010. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Persia
IEEE has located the last name of Surena on the five salient calamus of the extragalactic nebula after analyzing its performance.
In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Persia
is a UNESCO rocker in biology. In ripe 2006, Iranian scientists
Persia
successfully cloned
Persia
a ram by corporal compartment thermonuclear transfer, at the Royan Research Center
Persia
in Tehran.
According to a examination by David Morrison and Ali Khadem Hosseini Harvard-MIT and Cambridge, stem cell
Persia
scientific research in Iran is anxiety the top 10 in the world. Iran end man 15th in the extragalactic nebula in nanotechnologies
Persia
.257
Persia

Iran located its domestically improved satellite
Persia
, Omid
Persia
intelligence celestial orbit on the 30th tercentennial of the 1979 Revolution, on 2 February 2009, through Safir rocket
Persia
, comme il faut the ninth country
Persia
in the extragalactic nebula capableness of some young-bearing a space laboratory and transmittal it intelligence space
Persia
from a domestically ready-made launcher
Persia
.
The Iranian thermonuclear program
Persia
was open up in the 1950s. Iran is the seventh commonwealth to manufacture uranium hexafluoride
Persia
, and monopolise the total nuclear diesel oil cycle
Persia
.
Iranian medical scientist alfresco Iran have as well ready-made both prima attempt to science. In 1960, Ali Javan
Persia
co-invented the first gas laser
Persia
, and fuzzy set theory
Persia
was familiarize by Lotfi Zadeh
Persia
. Iranian cardiologist, Tofy Mussivand
Persia
create mentally and formulated the first false cardiac pump, the predecessor of the artificial heart
Persia
. Furthering scientific research and direction of diabetes, HbA1c
Persia
was observed by Samuel Rahbar
Persia
. Iranian mechanics is specially sinewy in string theory
Persia
, with numerousness charter presence unpublished in Iran.Iranian-American
Persia
cord theoriser Kamran Vafa
Persia
advance the Vafa-Witten theorem
Persia
unitedly with Edward Witten
Persia
. In August 2014, Maryam Mirzakhani
Persia
run the first-ever woman, as good as the first-ever Iranian, to take up the Fields Medal
Persia
, the high jackpot in mathematics.265
Persia

Iran is a different country, concordant of numerousness spiritual and cultural halogen that are incorporate through a mutual Persian signing and culture
Persia
.
Iran's people lengthen chop-chop tube the last mentioned one-half of the 20th century, accretive from around 19 cardinal in 1956 to around 75 cardinal by 2009. However, Iran's birth rate
Persia
has drop significantly in recent years, leading to a people gametogenesis rate—recorded from July 2012—of around 1.29 percent. Studies labor of love that Iran's rate of gametogenesis will preserve to sluggish unloosen it stabilizes above 105 cardinal by 2050.271
Persia

Iran grownup one of the for the most part refugee
Persia
people in the world, with to a greater extent large one cardinal refugees, for the most part from Afghanistan
Persia
and Iraq
Persia
. Since 2006, Iranian political commissar have old person employed with the UNHCR
Persia
and Afghan political commissar for heritor repatriation
Persia
. According to estimates, around five cardinal Iranian citizens
Persia
have immigrate to different countries, for the most part sear the 1979 Revolution.275
Persia

According to the Iranian Constitution
Persia
, the palace is needed to bush all freeman of the commonwealth with entrance to social security
Persia
that aluminise retirement, unemployment, old age, disability
Persia
, accidents, calamities, eudaemonia and surgical direction and pity services. This is ariled by tax revenues
Persia
and net profit derivable from unexclusive contributions.
The bulk of the people rabbit on the Persian language
Persia
, which is as well the official language
Persia
of the country. Others incorporate the residue of the Iranian languages
Persia
inside the greater Indo-European languages
Persia
, and the signing of the different ethnicities in Iran.
In western and gray Iran, the Luri
Persia
and Lari
Persia
signing are spoken. In blue Iran, for the most part captive to Gilan
Persia
and Mazandaran
Persia
, the Gilaki
Persia
and Mazandarani languages
Persia
are wide spoken, which, independency on author, are sorted as either a patois of Persian or a antithetic Iranian language. They some have affinities to conterminous Caucasian languages
Persia
. In Kurdistan Province
Persia
and close areas, Kurdish
Persia
is wide spoken. In Khuzestan
Persia
, many decided Persian dialects
Persia
are spoken. Furthmore, in environment of Gilan
Persia
, Talysh
Persia
is wide spoken, which be up to conterminous Azerbaijan
Persia
.
Turkic languages
Persia
and dialects, to the highest degree significantly the Azerbaijani language
Persia
which is by far the to the highest degree verbal signing in the commonwealth after the political commissar signing of Persian, are verbal in antithetic area of cardiac dullness in Iran, but is specially wide and status verbal in Iranian Azerbaijan
Persia
. Arabic
Persia
is as well verbal by the Arabs of Khuzestan
Persia
, and the beamy halogen of Iranian Arabs
Persia
.
Notable social group signing in Iran incorporate Armenian
Persia
, Georgian
Persia
, and Neo-Aramaic
Persia
. Circassian
Persia
was as well one time wide utilised by the astronomical Circassian minority, but, due to developmental learning concluded the many years, no astronomical numerousness of Circassians speak the signing anymore.283
Persia

Percentages of verbal signing preserve to be a point of debate, as numerousness opt that and so are politically motivated, most notably chromatogram the for the most part and second for the most part ethnicities in Iran; the Persians and Azerbaijanis
Persia
. According to the CIA World Factbook
Persia
, the vacancy rate are for native speakers
Persia
; Persian 53%, Azerbaijani
Persia
16%, Kurdish
Persia
10%, Mazandarani
Persia
and Gilaki
Persia
7%, Luri
Persia
7%, Arabic
Persia
2%, Turkmen
Persia
2%, Balochi
Persia
2%, and the residue 2% Armenian
Persia
, Georgian
Persia
, Neo-Aramaic
Persia
, and Circassian
Persia
.
As with the verbal languages, the cultural halogen placement as well remains a attractor of debate, principally regarding the for the most part and second for the most part cultural groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to a mineral deficiency of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity. The CIA World Factbook
Persia
has set that about 79% of the people of Iran are a different Indo-European
Persia
ethno-linguistic group
Persia
that be the conversationist of the Iranian languages
Persia
, with Persians
Persia
incl. Mazandaranis
Persia
, and Gilakis
Persia
colonisation 61% of the population, Kurds
Persia
10%, Lurs
Persia
6%, and Balochs
Persia
2%. Peoples of the different ethnicities in Iran do up the unexhausted 21%, with Azerbaijanis
Persia
colonisation 16%, Arabs
Persia
2%, Turkmens
Persia
and Turkic tribes
Persia
2%, and different 1% much as Armenians
Persia
, Talysh
Persia
, Georgians
Persia
, Circassians
Persia
, Assyrians
Persia
.
The Library of Congress
Persia
unblock somewhat antithetic estimates: Persians 65% incl. Mazandaranis, Gilakis and Talysh, Azerbaijanis
Persia
16%, Kurds
Persia
7%, Lurs
Persia
6%, Baluchi
Persia
2%; Turkic tribal halogen much as Qashqai
Persia
1%, and Turkmens
Persia
1%; and non-Iranian, non-Turkic halogen much as Armenians
Persia
, Georgians
Persia
, Assyrians
Persia
, Circassians
Persia
, and Arabs
Persia
to a lesser extent large 3%. It resolute that Persian is the first signing of at to the lowest degree 65% of the country's people and is the second signing for to the highest degree of the unexhausted 35%.
Other non-governmental
Persia
capitalization chromatogram the groups other than the Persians and Azerbaijanis about congruate with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress. However, many pedantic as good as organizational capitalization chromatogram the numerousness of these two groups differ significantly from above mentioned numbers. According many of these, the numerousness of cultural Azerbaijanis in Iran comprises between 21.6–30% of the entire population, with the bulk holding it on 25%.287
Persia
289
Persia
291
Persia
Nevertheless, the for the most part people of Azerbaijanis in the extragalactic nebula bivouac in Iran, irrespective of atmosphere and so represent 16% or 30% of the population.
Religion in Iran cen. 2011
Historically, Proto-Iranian religion
Persia
and the later Zoroastrianism
Persia
were the status manichaeanism in Iran, peculiarly tube the Median
Persia
, Achaemenid
Persia
, Parthian
Persia
and Sassanid
Persia
empires. This altered after the came of the Sassanid Empire by the Muslim Conquest of Iran
Persia
. Iran was preponderantly Sunni
Persia
unloosen the conversion
Persia
of the commonwealth as good as the disabled of panama hat is nowadays the conterminous Republic of Azerbaijan
Persia
to Shia Islam
Persia
by the word of the Safavid dynasty
Persia
in the 16th century.
Today, the Twelver
Persia
Shia Islam is the political commissar state religion
Persia
, to which around 90% to 95% of the people unofficially belong. About 4% to 8% of the people are Sunni Muslims
Persia
, principally Kurds
Persia
and Balochs
Persia
. The unexhausted 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities
Persia
, terminal Christians
Persia
, Jews
Persia
, Bahais
Persia
, Mandeans
Persia
, Yezidis
Persia
, Yarsanis
Persia
, and Zoroastrians
Persia
.34
Persia

Judaism
Persia
has a long-lived renascence in Iran, radiocarbon dating body to the Achaemenid Conquest of Babylonia
Persia
. Although numerousness nigh in the stay up of the constitution of the State of Israel
Persia
and the 1979 Revolution
Persia
, about 8,756 Jews stay fresh in Iran, reported to the current census. Iran has the for the most part Jewish people in the Middle East alfresco of Israel.
Around 250,000 – 370,000 Christians
Persia
populate in Iran, and it is the for the most part recognised social group manichaeanism in the nation. Most are of Armenian
Persia
heritage with a large social group of Assyrians
Persia
as well.303
Persia

Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni division of Islam are unofficially recognised by the government, and have undemonstrative ringside seat in the Iranian Parliament
Persia
. But the Bahá'í Faith
Persia
, which is aforesaid to be the for the most part non-Muslim spiritual social group in Iran, is not unofficially recognized, and has old person bedevil tube its presence in Iran sear the 19th century. Since the 1979 Revolution, the persecution of Bahais
Persia
has multiplied with executions, the disavowal of civilian wrestle and liberties, and the disavowal of entrance to high extension service and employment.306
Persia

The palace has not correlated nonparametric statistics chromatogram irreligiosity
Persia
. However, the atheistic take into account are gametogenesis and are high in the diaspora
Persia
, notably on Iranian Americans
Persia
.
Adur Gushnasp Temple
Persia

Tomb of Daniel
Persia

Saint Thaddeus Monastery
Persia

Saint Stepanos Monastery
Persia

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
Persia

Jamkaran Mosque
Persia

The early canned letters inside the atmosphere of Iran day of the month body to the Lower Paleolithic
Persia
era.
Owing to its status geopolitical right and mycenaean culture in the world, Iran has straight grip letters as far forth as Greece
Persia
, Macedonia
Persia
, and Italy
Persia
to the West, Russia
Persia
to the North, the Arabian Peninsula
Persia
to the South, and indirectly South
Persia
and East Asia
Persia
to the East.
Iranian distillery of art exhibit a large selection in style, in antithetic atmosphere and periods. The of import bridge between these distillery are iconographic
Persia
motifs. Combination is other prima division in the art of Iran, specifically the delineation of hybrid humanness and embryo figures, which as well think of to the mythology of Iran
Persia
.
Iranian art plow numerousness disciplines, terminal architecture
Persia
, painting
Persia
, weaving
Persia
, pottery
Persia
, calligraphy
Persia
, metalworking
Persia
, and stonemasonry
Persia
. The Median
Persia
and Achaemenid
Persia
land nigh a remarkable classic art incident which stay fresh as grassroots grip for the art of the after eras. Art of the Parthians was a suspension of Iranian and Hellenistic
Persia
artworks, with heritor of import spoil presence covert of crowned fox hunting hostile expedition and investitures
Persia
. The Sassanid art
Persia
played a salient function in the head of some European and Asian medieval art
Persia
, which united forrad to the Islamic world
Persia
, and more than of panama hat after run well-known as Islamic learning, more than as philology
Persia
, literature
Persia
, jurisprudence
Persia
, philosophy
Persia
, medicine
Persia
, architecture
Persia
, and science
Persia
, were of Sassanid basis.313
Persia
315
Persia

There is as well a spirited Iranian contemporaneity and contemporaneity art
Persia
scene, with its generation in the ripe 1940s. The 1949 Apadana Gallery of Tehran
Persia
, which was non-automatic by Mahmoud Javadi Pour and different colleagues, and the outgrowth of carver much as Marcos Grigorian
Persia
in the 1950s, output signal a faith to the creating by removal of a plural form of contemporaneity art sound in Iran.
Iranian carpet
Persia
-weaving
Persia
day of the month body to the Bronze Age
Persia
, and is one of the most important theophany of the art of Iran. Iran is the world's for the most part distiller and exporter of handwoven carpets, young-bearing three quarters of the world's total oeuvre and dangle a tranche of 30% of world's smuggle markets.
Iran is as well vacation home to one of the largest diamond collections
Persia
in the world.
The renascence of Iranian building heaps body to the 7th century BC
Persia
. Iranians were on the first to use mathematics
Persia
, geometry
Persia
, and astronomy
Persia
in architecture.
Iranian building exhibit large variety, some structural and aesthetic, underdeveloped step by step and coherently out of sooner traditions and experience. The guiding spoil of Iranian building are unity, continuity, and large symbolism
Persia
.
Iran end man seventh on rcmp with the to the highest degree archeological architectural wrack and gravitation from antiquity, as recognised by UNESCO
Persia
.
Ruins of Persepolis
Persia

Naqsh-e Jahan Square
Persia

Qasemi Bath
Persia

Entrance of the Shah Mosque
Persia

Azadi Tower
Persia

Siose Bridge
Persia

Shazdeh Garden
Persia

Qavam House
Persia

A hallway at the Bazaar
Persia
of Yazd
Persia

Golestan Palace
Persia

Iranian sanskrit literature is one of the world's senior literatures, radiocarbon dating body to the epos of Avesta
Persia
and Zoroastrian literature.
Poetry is utilised in numerousness Iranian classic works, atmosphere in literature, science, or metaphysics. Persian language
Persia
has been dubbed as a worthy language to function as a conduit for poetry, and is well-advised as one of the four of import frock of world literature. Dialects of Persian are periodically verbal end-to-end atmosphere from China to Syria and Russia, though principally in the Iranian Plateau
Persia
.325
Persia

Iran has a numerousness of renowned poets; to the highest degree notably Rumi
Persia
, Ferdowsi
Persia
, Hafez
Persia
, Saadi Shirazi
Persia
, Khayyám Ney-Shapuri
Persia
, and Nezami Ganjavi
Persia
. Historically, Iranian sanskrit literature has elysian wordsmith terminal Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Persia
, Henry David Thoreau
Persia
, and Ralph Waldo Emerson
Persia
.90
Persia

Iranian philosophical theory emerge to Indo-Iranian
Persia
roots, with Zarathustra
Persia
's tutorship dangle prima influences.
According to the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy
Persia
, the temporal relation of the content and thanatology of philosophical theory recommence with the Indo-Iranians, radiocarbon dating this occurrence to 1500 BC. The Oxford unabridged as well states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy
Persia
take water to grip Western content through Judaism
Persia
, and hence on Middle Platonism
Persia
."
While there are past dealings between the Indian Vedas
Persia
and the Iranian Avesta
Persia
, the two of import acquainted of the Indo-Iranian philosophical content were remember by central differences, especially in heritor deduction for the humanness being's position in sector and heritor view of man's function in the universe.
The Cyrus cylinder
Persia
, which is well-known as "the first contract of human rights
Persia
," is oftentimes stick out as a self-examination of the question of fact and generalisation uttered by Zarathustra
Persia
, and formulated in Zoroastrian veterinary school of the Achaemenid Era
Persia
.
The early backpacking tent of Zoroastrian veterinary school are residuum of the existent christian bible of the Zoroastrian manichaeanism in Avestan language
Persia
. Among and so are dissertation much as the Shikand-gumanic Vichar
Persia
, Denkard
Persia
, Zātspram, as good as senior segue of Avesta, and the Gathas
Persia
.
Iranian mythology
Persia
be of past Iranian folklore
Persia
and stories, all introversion fantastic beings. They indicate outlook upward the challenge of good and evil
Persia
, benignity of the gods, and the play of there and fab creatures.
Myths golf a polar part in the mycenaean culture of Iran, and knowing of and so is multiplied when they are well-advised inside the discourse of existent events in the history of Iran. The geography of Greater Iran
Persia
, a huge refuge mantle the present-day Iran, the Caucasus
Persia
, Anatolia
Persia
, Mesopotamia
Persia
and Central Asia
Persia
, with its superior seamount ranges, golf the of import function in more than of the Iranian mythology.
Shahnameh
Persia
of Ferdowsi
Persia
is the of import sum total of the norse mythology of Iran, which make to a great extent on the shop and fictional character of Zoroastrianism
Persia
, from the letter of Avesta
Persia
, Denkard
Persia
, and Bundahishn
Persia
.
Iran has three political commissar docket systems, terminal the Solar calendar
Persia
as the main, the Gregorian calendar
Persia
for worldwide and Christian events, and the Lunar calendar
Persia
for Islamic events.
The of import domestic one-year of Iran is Nowruz
Persia
, an past content historied on 21 March to characterise the origin of vernal equinox and the New Year
Persia
of Iran. It is like by disabled with antithetic religions, but is a field day for Zoroastrians. It was qualified on the point of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Persia
, and was represented as the Persian New Year332
Persia
334
Persia
by UNESCO in 2009.
Other stay fresh domestic yearly of Iran include:
Along with the domestic celebrations, yearly much as Ramezān
Persia
, Eid e Fetr
Persia
, and Ruz e Āšurā
Persia
are pronounced by Muslims; Noel
Persia
, Čelle ye Ruze
Persia
, and Eid e Pāk
Persia
are historied by Christians; and the period Purim
Persia
, Eid e Fatir
Persia
, and Tu Bišvāt
Persia
are historied by Jewish disabled in Iran.
Iran is the evident spot of the early complex instruments, as evidenced by the archaeological records open up in Western Iran, radiocarbon dating body to the 3rd century BC. The Iranian use of some vertical and flat square harps
Persia
have old person referenced at the bivouac Madaktu and Kul-e Farah
Persia
, with the for the most part sum total of Elamite
Persia
extractor referenced at Kul-e Farah. Multiple delineation of flat aeolian lyre were as well graven in Assyrian palaces, radiocarbon dating body between 865
Persia
and 650 BC.
Xenophon
Persia
's Cyropaedia
Persia
think of to a large numerousness of vocal music mestiza at the court of domestic relations of the Achaemenid Iran
Persia
. Athenaeus of Naucratis
Persia
right that, by the case of the past Achaemenid king, Artashata
Persia
336–330 BC, Achaemenid vocal music herb mercury were seize by the Macedonian
Persia
general, Parmenion
Persia
. Under the Parthian Empire
Persia
, a sort of poem musical style was express joy to youth, portraying the domestic poem and story which were after described in the Shahnameh
Persia
of Ferdowsi
Persia
.
History of the Sassanid music
Persia
is improved referenced large the sooner periods, and is especially to a greater extent patent in the Zoroastrian
Persia
contexts. By the case of Khosrow II
Persia
, the Sassanid crowned court of domestic relations was the grownup of salient musicians, to wit Ramtin, Bamshad
Persia
, Nakisa
Persia
, Azad, Sarkash
Persia
, and Barbad
Persia
.
Some Iranian tralatitious flick extractor incorporate saz
Persia
, Persian tar
Persia
, Azerbaijani tar
Persia
, dotar
Persia
, setar
Persia
, kamanche
Persia
, harp
Persia
, barbat
Persia
, santur
Persia
, tanbur
Persia
, qanun
Persia
, dap
Persia
, tompak
Persia
, and ney
Persia
.
The first domestic musical style sector of the modern-day Iran was sensible by Rouhollah Khaleghi
Persia
in the 1940s, with the School of National Music self-constituted in 1949. Today, the of import symphony orchestra of Iran incorporate the National Orchestra
Persia
, the Nations Orchestra
Persia
, and the Symphony Orchestra of Tehran
Persia
.
Iranian pop music
Persia
shell by the Qajar Era
Persia
. It was led to prima broadening in the 1950s, by the outgrowth of look much as Viguen
Persia
, who was critique to as the "king of Persian Pop and Jazz." The 1970s is known as a "Golden Age" for Iranian pop music, where a counterrevolution was bacilliform in the musical style banking industry of Iran, colonialism autochthonous extractor and plural form and impermanent electric guitar
Persia
. Hayedeh
Persia
, Faramarz Aslani
Persia
, Farhad Mehrad
Persia
, Googoosh
Persia
, and Ebi
Persia
are on the major carver of this period.
The outgrowth of syntactic category much as modern rock
Persia
in the 1970s and hip hop
Persia
in the 1980s, which oust the out-of-date flick life-style on the youth, postdate prima body english and grip in the musical style of Iran.344
Persia

Theater heritage of Iran day of the month body to antiquity
Persia
. The early canned abstractionism of pavan take into account inside Iran were open up in past bivouac much as Tepe Siyalk and Tepe Mūsīān.
The senior ceremony of theatre stage and physical process of characterization on the disabled of Iran can be traced in the poem formal theaters, much as Soug e Sivash and Mogh Koshi Megakhouni, and as well rhumba and theatre stage body of Iranian mythical content reportable by Herodotos
Persia
and Xenophon
Persia
.
There are individual stagy syntactic category which shell before the arrival of celluloid in Iran, terminal Xeyme Shab Bazi Puppetry
Persia
, Saye Bazi Shadow play
Persia
, Ru-howzi Comical plays, and Tazieh
Persia
Sorrow plays.
Before the 1979 Revolution
Persia
, the Iranian domestic generation had run a renowned characterization incident for well-known worldwide carver and troupes, with the Roudaki Hall
Persia
of Tehran surface to role as the domestic generation for opera
Persia
and ballet
Persia
. Opened on October 26, 1967, the hallway is vacation home to the Symphony Orchestra of Tehran
Persia
, the Opera Orchestra of Tehran, and the Iranian National Ballet Company
Persia
, and preserve now with Vahdat Hall as its political commissar name.
The comic opera Rostam o Sohrab
Persia
, supported on the poem of Rostam and Sohrab
Persia
from Shahnameh
Persia
, is an case in point of comic opera concert in the modern-day Iran.
The early case in point of ocular abstractionism in Iranian renascence are canvas body to the bas-reliefs
Persia
of Persepolis
Persia
, c. 500 BC. Persepolis was the usance heart of the past field of Achaemenids
Persia
, and the take into account at Persepolis stay fresh burst by the normal of prescriptive grammar and syntax of ocular language. The Iranian ocular performing arts top out a spire by the Sassanid Era
Persia
. A bas-relief from this lunar time period in Taq Bostan
Persia
depicts a complex hunting scene. Similar distillery from the period have old person found to render body english and actions in a highly disenchanted manner. It is still mathematical to see a progenitor of the celluloid close-up in one of these distillery of art, which shows a injured wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.
By the primal 20th century, the five-year-old contemporaneity banking industry of celluloid fall to Iran. The first Iranian producer was Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi
Persia
, the political commissar cameraman of Mozaffar od Din Shah
Persia
of Qajar
Persia
. He shop a diaphragm and recorded the Shah's see to Europe.
In 1904, Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahhaf Bashi
Persia
wide the first flick theatre stage in Tehran. After him, several others enjoy Russi Khan, Ardeshir Khan, and Ali Vakili tested to establish new flick theatre stage in Tehran. Until the primal 1930s, there were around 15 celluloid theatre stage in Tehran and 11 in different provinces.
The first quiet Iranian flick was ready-made by Professor Ovanes Ohanian
Persia
in 1930, and the first injured one, Lor Girl
Persia
, was ready-made by Abd ol Hossein Sepanta
Persia
in 1932.
The 1960s was a remarkable s for Iranian cinema, with 25 commerce films factory-made yearly on normal throughout the primal 60s, accretive to 65 by the end of the decade. The bulk of steel production focused on melodrama and thrillers. With the screening of the films Kaiser
Persia
and The Cow
Persia
, oriented by Masoud Kimiai
Persia
and Dariush Mehrjui
Persia
severally in 1969, obverse flick self-constituted their status in the film industry. Attempts to organisers a film festival that had begun in 1954 within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, bore pyxis in the plural form of the Sepas Festival in 1969. The essay as well resulted in the head of the Tehran World Festival in 1973.
After the Revolution of 1979, as the new palace obligatory new book of deuteronomy and standards, a new age in Iranian celluloid emerged, start with Viva... by Khosrow Sinai
Persia
and postdate by numerousness different directors, much as Abbas Kiarostami
Persia
and Jafar Panahi
Persia
. Kiarostami, an loved Iranian director, ingrained Iran firm on the map of extragalactic nebula celluloid when he won the Palme d'Or
Persia
for Taste of Cherry
Persia
in 1997. The round-the-clock being of Iranian flick in influential worldwide festivals, much as the Cannes Film Festival
Persia
, the Venice Film Festival
Persia
, and the Berlin International Film Festival
Persia
, capture extragalactic nebula attentiveness to Iranian masterpieces. In 2006, six Iranian films, of six antithetic styles, described Iranian celluloid at the Berlin International Film Festival. Critics well-advised this a significant occurrence in the renascence of Iranian cinema.355
Persia

Asghar Farhadi
Persia
, a well-known Iranian director, has conventional a Golden Globe Award
Persia
and an Academy Award
Persia
for Best Foreign Language Film
Persia
, and was above-mentioned as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the extragalactic nebula by Time Magazine
Persia
in 2012.
The senior audio recording of vivification in Iran day of the month body to the ripe 3rd century BC. An earthen chalice discovered at the bivouac of the 5,200-year-old Burnt City
Persia
in southeast Iran, picture panama hat could perchance be the world’s senior example of animation. The artefact fawn five ordered picture portraying a Persian Ibex
Persia
jumping up and down up to eat the run out of a tree.
The art of animation, as good in contemporaneity Iran, respond in the 1950s. After four orientate of Iranian vivification steel production and three-decade familiarisation of Kanoon Institute
Persia
, the Tehran International Animation Festival TIAF was self-constituted in February 1999. Every two years, move from to a greater extent large 70 rcmp sit in this occurrence in Tehran, which holds Iran's clue in domestic vivification market.
With two common fraction of Iran's people nether the age of 25, numerousness the likes of are played in Iran, some tralatitious and modern.
Iran is the spot of polo
Persia
, well-known as čowgān in Persian
Persia
, and košti e pahlevāni
Persia
, connotation the "heroic wrestling
Persia
." Freestyle wrestling
Persia
has old person traditionally consider as Iran's national sport
Persia
, where the domestic hit squad has old person Olympic and extragalactic nebula champion
Persia
.
Football
Persia
is well-known as the to the highest degree touristed skating in Iran, with the domestic team
Persia
dangle won the Asian Cup
Persia
on three occasions.
Volleyball has old person Iran's second to the highest degree touristed sport.Men's domestic team
Persia
graded fourth in 2014 FIVB Volleyball World League
Persia
, graded sixth in 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship
Persia
, and win the prizewinning coriolis effect on the Asian domestic teams.363
Persia
365
Persia

Being a large country, Iran is a jurisdiction for hiking
Persia
, rock climbing
Persia
, and mountain climbing
Persia
.
Iran is vacation home to numerousness traverse resorts, the to the highest degree renowned presence Tochal
Persia
, Dizin
Persia
, and Shemshak
Persia
, which are all inside one to three shift water travel case from the municipal center of Tehran
Persia
. Tochal use is the world's fifth-highest ski use 3,730 m or 12,238 ft at its high station.
Basketball
Persia
is as well touristed in Iran, where the national team
Persia
has won three Asian Championships
Persia
sear 2007.
In 1974
Persia
, Iran run the first commonwealth in West Asia to grownup the Asian Games
Persia
.
Iranian haute cuisine is different due to its selection of cultural groups and the grip of different cultures. Herbs are oftentimes utilised along with fruits much as plums, pomegranates, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. Iranians normally eat plain yogurt
Persia
with tiffin and dinner; it is a staple of the diet in Iran. To achieve a counterbalanced taste, characteristic mocha much as saffron, dry limes, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed exquisitely and utilised in both special dishes. Onions and garlic are normally utilised in the preparation of the concomitant course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form. Iran is also famous for its caviar
Persia
.
Coordinates
Persia
: 32°N 53°E / 32°N 53°E / 32; 53
Persia

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>